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Methods of Classroom Tansactions

Methods of Classroom Tansactions
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Very specific learning targets.
Students are told reasons why content is important - helps to clarify lesson objective.
Relatively easy to measure student gains.
Is a widely accepted instructional method.
Good for teaching specific facts and basic skills.
Can stifle teacher creativity.
Requires well-organized content preparation and good oral communication skills.
Steps must be followed in prescribed order.
May not be effective for higher-order thinking skills, depending on the knowledge base and skill of the teacher.
Content must be organized in advance.
Teacher should have information about student prerequisites for the lesson.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Helps foster mutual responsibility.
Supported by research as an effective technique.
Students learn to be patient, less critical and more compassionate.
Some students don't work well this way.
Loners find it hard to share answers.
Aggressive students try to take over.
Bright students tend to act superior.
Decide what skills or knowledge are to be learned.
Requires some time to prepare students. to learn how to work in groups.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Factual material is presented in a direct, logical manner.
May provide experiences that inspire
- useful for large groups.
Proficient oral skills are necessary.
Audience is often passive.
Learning is difficult to gauge.
Communication is one-way.
Not appropriate for children below grade 4.
There should be a clear introduction and summary.
Effectiveness related to time and scope of content.
Is always audience specific; often includes examples, anecdotes.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Involves students, at least after the lecture.
Students can question, clarify and challenge.
Lecture can be interspersed with discussion.
Time constraints may affect discussion opportunities.
Effectiveness is connected to appropriate questions and discussion; often requires teacher to "shift gears" quickly.
Teacher should be prepared to allow questions during lecture, as appropriate.
Teacher should also anticipate difficult questions and prepare appropriate responses in advance.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Experts present different opinions.
Can provoke better discussion than a one person discussion.
Frequent change of speaker keeps attention from lagging.
Personalities may overshadow content.
Experts are often not effective speakers.
Subject may not be in logical order.
Not appropriate for elementary age students.
Logistics can be troublesome.
Teacher coordinates focus of panel, introduces and summarizes.
Teacher briefs panel.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas.
Encourages full participation because all ideas are equally recorded.
Draws on group's knowledge and experience.
Spirit of cooperation is created.
One idea can spark off other ideas.
Can be unfocused.
Needs to be limited to 5 - 7 minutes.
Students may have difficulty getting away from known reality.
If not managed well, criticism and negative evaluation may occur.
Value to students depends in part on their maturity level.
Teacher selects issue.
Teacher must be ready to intervene when the process is hopelessly bogged doen.
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Entertaining way of introducing content and raising issues
Usually keeps group's attention
Looks professional
Stimulates discussion
Can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion
Discussion may not have full participation
Most effective when following discussion
Need to obtain and set up equipment
Effective only if teacher prepares for discussion after the presentation
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Pools ideas and experiences from group
Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed
Allows everyone to participate in an active process
Not practical with more that 20 students
A few students can dominate
Some students may not participate
Is time consuming
Can get off the track
Requires careful planning by teacher to guide discussion
Requires question outline
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Allows for participation of everyone
Students often more comfortable in small groups
Groups can reach consensus
Needs careful thought as to purpose of group
Groups may get side tracked
Need to prepare specific tasks or questions for group to answer
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Develops analytic and problem solving skills
Allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues
Allows student to apply new knowledge and skills
Students may not see relevance to own situation
Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results
Not appropriate for elementary level
Case must be clearly defined
Case study must be prepared
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Introduces problem situation dramatically
Provides opportunity for students to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view
Allows for exploration of solutions
Provides opportunity to practice skills
Some students may be too self-conscious
Not appropriate for large groups
Some students may feel threatened
Teacher has to define problem situation and roles clearly
Teacher must give very clear instructions
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Allows students to think for themselves without being influenced by others
Individual thoughts can then be shared in large group
Can be used only for short period of time Teacher has to prepare handouts
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Personalizes topic
Breaks down audience's stereotypes
May not be a good speaker Contact speakers and coordinate
Introduce speaker appropriately
Advantages Disadvantages Preparation
Opportunity to explore values and beliefs
Allows students to discuss values in a safe environment
Gives structure to discussion
Students may not be honest about their values.
Students may be too self-conscious.
Students may not be able to articulate their values in an effective way.
Teacher must carefully prepare exercise
Teacher must give clear instructions
Teacher must prepare discussion questions

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